Personnel Policies and Standards
SECTION 21. Recruitment and Selection of Employees.—(1) Opportunity for government employment shall be open to all qualified citizens and positive efforts shall be exerted to attract the best qualified to enter the service. Employees shall be selected on the basis of fitness to perform the duties and assume the responsibilities of the positions.
(2) When a vacancy occurs in a position in the first level of the Career Service as defined in Section 8, the employees in the department who occupy the next lower positions in the occupational group under which the vacant position is classified, and in other functionally related occupational groups and who are competent, qualified and with the appropriate civil service eligibility shall be considered for promotion.
(3) When a vacancy occurs in a position in the second level of the Career Service as defined in Section 8, the employees in the government service who occupy the next lower positions in the occupational group under which the vacant position is classified and in other functionally related occupational groups and who are competent, qualified and with the appropriate civil service eligibility shall be considered for promotion.
(4) For purposes of this Section, each department or agency shall evolve its own screening process, which may include tests of fitness, in accordance with standards and guidelines set by the Commission. Promotion boards shall be formed to formulate criteria for evaluation, conduct tests or interviews, and make systematic assessment of training experience.
(5) If the vacancy is not filled by promotion as provided herein the same shall be filled by transfer of present employees in the government service, by reinstatement, by re-employment of persons separated through reduction in force, or by appointment of persons with the civil service eligibility appropriate to the positions.
(6) A qualified next-in-rank employee shall have the right to appeal initially to the Secretaries or heads of agencies or instrumentalities including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, then to the Merit System Protection Board, and finally to the Civil Service Commission an appointment made in favor of another employee if the appellant is not satisfied with the written special reason or reasons given by the appointing authority for such appointment; Provided, however, that the decision of the Civil Service Commission may be reviewed on certiorari only by the Supreme Court within thirty (30) days from receipt of the decision of the aggrieved party. For purposes of this Section, “qualified next-in-rank” refers to an employee appointed on a permanent basis to a position previously determined to be next-in-rank and who meets the requirements for appointment thereto as previously determined by the appointing authority and approved by the Commission.
(7) Qualification in an appropriate examination shall be required for appointment to positions in the first and second levels in the career service in accordance with the Civil Service rules, except as otherwise provided in this Title: Provided, That whenever there is a civil service eligible actually available for appointment, no person who is not such an eligible shall be appointed even in a temporary capacity to any vacant position in the career service in the government or in any government-owned or controlled corporation with original charter, except when the immediate filling of the vacancy is urgently required in the public interest, or when the vacancy is not permanent, in which cases temporary appointments of non-eligibles may be made in the absence of eligibles actually and immediately available.
(8) The appropriate examinations herein referred to shall be those given by the Commission and the different agencies: Provided, however, That nothing herein shall affect those eligibilities acquired prior to the effectivity of the Civil Service Law: Provided, further, That a person with a civil service eligibility acquired by successfully passing an examination shall be qualified for a position requiring a lower eligibility if he possesses the other requirements for appointment to such position.
SECTION 22. Qualification Standards.—(1) A qualification standard expresses the minimum requirements for a class of positions in terms of education, training and experience, civil service eligibility, physical fitness, and other qualities required for successful performance. The degree of qualifications of an officer or employee shall be determined by the appointing authority on the basis of the qualification standard for the particular position.
Qualification standards shall be used as basis for civil service examinations for positions in the career service, as guides in appointment and other personnel actions, in the adjudication of protested appointments, in determining training needs, and as aid in the inspection and audit of the agencies’ personnel work programs.
It shall be administered in such manner as to continually provide incentives to officers and employees towards professional growth and foster the career system in the government service.
(2) The establishment, administration and maintenance of qualification standards shall be the responsibility of the department or agency, with the assistance and approval of the Civil Service Commission and in consultation with the Wage and Position Classification Office.
SECTION 23. Release of Examination Results.—The results of any particular civil service examination held in a number of places on the same date shall be released simultaneously.
SECTION 24. Register of Eligibles.—The names of the competitors who pass an examination shall be entered in a register of eligibles arranged in the order of their general ratings and containing such information as the Commission may deem necessary.
SECTION 25. Cultural Communities.—In line with the national policy to facilitate the integration of the members of cultural communities and accelerate the development of the areas occupied by them, the Commission shall give special civil service examinations to qualify them for appointment in the civil service.
SECTION 26. Personnel Actions.—All appointments in the career service shall be made only according to merit and fitness, to be determined as far as practicable by competitive examinations. A non-eligible shall not be appointed to any position in the civil service whenever there is a civil service eligible actually available for and ready to accept appointment.
As used in this Title, any action denoting the movement or progress of personnel in the civil service shall be known as personnel action. Such action shall include appointment through certification, promotion, transfer, reinstatement, re-employment, detail, reassignment, demotion, and separation. All personnel actions shall be in accordance with such rules, standards, and regulations as may be promulgated by the Commission.
(1) Appointment through certification.—An appointment through certification to a position in the civil service, except as herein otherwise provided, shall be issued to a person who has been selected from a list of qualified persons certified by the Commission from an appropriate register of eligibles, and who meets all the other requirements of the position.
All such persons must serve a probationary period of six months following their original appointment and shall undergo a thorough character investigation in order to acquire permanent civil service status. A probationer may be dropped from the service for unsatisfactory conduct or want of capacity any time before the expiration of the probationary period: Provided, That such action is appealable to the Commission.
(2) Promotion.—A promotion is a movement from one position to another with an increase in duties and responsibilities as authorized by law and usually accompanied by an increase in pay. The movement may be from one department or agency to another or from one organizational unit to another in the same department or agency.
(3) Transfer.—A transfer is a movement from one position to another which is of equivalent rank, level, or salary without break in service involving the issuance of an appointment.
It shall not be considered disciplinary when made in the interest of public service, in which case, the employee concerned shall be informed of the reasons therefor. If the employee believes that there is no justification for the transfer, he may appeal his case to the Commission.
The transfer may be from one department or agency to another or from one organizational unit to another in the same department or agency: Provided, however, That any movement from the non-career service to the career service shall not be considered a transfer.
(4) Reinstatement.—Any person who has been permanently appointed to a position in the career service and who has, through no delinquency or misconduct, been separated therefrom, may be reinstated to a position in the same level for which he is qualified.
(5) Reemployment.—Names of persons who have been appointed permanently to positions in the career service and who have been separated as a result of reduction in force or reorganization, shall be entered in a list from which selection for reemployment shall be made.
(6) Detail.—A detail is the movement of an employee from one agency to another without the issuance of an appointment and shall be allowed, only for a limited period in the case of employees occupying professional, technical and scientific positions. If the employee believes that there is no justification for the detail, he may appeal his case to the Commission. Pending appeal, the decision to detail the employee shall be executory unless otherwise ordered by the Commission.
(7) Reassignment.—An employee may be reassigned from one organizational unit to another in the same agency: Provided, That such reassignment shall not involve a reduction in rank, status or salary.
SECTION 27. Employment Status.—Appointment in the career service shall be permanent or temporary.
(1) Permanent status.—A permanent appointment shall be issued to a person who meets all the requirements for the positions to which he is being appointed, including the appropriate eligibility prescribed, in accordance with the provisions of law, rules and standards promulgated in pursuance thereof.
(2) Temporary appointment.—In the absence of appropriate eligibles and it becomes necessary in the public interest to fill a vacancy, a temporary appointment shall be issued to a person who meets all the requirements for the position to which he is being appointed except the appropriate civil service eligibility: Provided, That such temporary appointment shall not exceed twelve months, but the appointee may be replaced sooner if a qualified civil service eligible becomes available.
SECTION 28. Salary Increase or Adjustment.—Adjustments in salaries as a result of increase in pay levels or upgrading of positions which do not involve a change in qualification requirements shall not require new appointments except that copies of the salary adjustment notices shall be submitted to the Commission for record purposes.
SECTION 29. Reduction in Force.—Whenever it becomes necessary because of lack of work or funds or due to a change in the scope or nature of an agency’s program, or as a result of reorganization, to reduce the staff of any department or agency, those in the same group or class of positions in one or more agencies within the particular department or agency wherein the reduction is to be effected, shall be reasonably compared in terms of relative fitness, efficiency and length of service, and those found to be least qualified for the remaining positions shall be laid off.
SECTION 30. Career and Personnel Development.—The development and retention of a competent and efficient work force in the public service is a primary concern of government. It shall be the policy of the government that a continuing program of career and personnel development be established for all government employees at all levels. An integrated national plan for career and personnel development shall serve as the basis for all career and personnel development activities in the government.
SECTION 31. Career and Personnel Development Plans.—Each department or agency shall prepare a career and personnel development plan which shall be integrated into a national plan by the Commission. Such career and personnel development plans which shall include provisions on merit promotions, performance evaluation, in-service training, including overseas and local scholarships and training grants, job rotation, suggestions and incentive award systems, and such other provisions for employees’ health, welfare, counseling, recreation and similar services.
SECTION 32. Merit Promotion Plans.—Each department or agency shall establish merit promotion plans which shall be administered in accordance with the provisions of the Civil Service law and the rules, regulations and standards to be promulgated by the Commission. Such plans shall include provisions for a definite screening process, which may include tests of fitness, in accordance with standards and guidelines set by the Commission. Promotion Boards may be organized subject to criteria drawn by the Commission.
SECTION 33. Performance Evaluation System.—There shall be established a performance evaluation system, which shall be administered in accordance with rules, regulations and standards, promulgated by the Commission for all officers and employees in the career service. Such performance evaluation system shall be administered in such manner as to continually foster the improvement of individual employee efficiency and organizational effectiveness.
Each department or agency may, after consultation with the Commission, establish and use one or more performance evaluation plans appropriate to the various groups of positions in the department or agency concerned. No performance evaluation shall be given, or used as a basis for personnel action, except under an approved performance evaluation plan: Provided, That each employee shall be informed periodically by his supervisor of his performance evaluation.
SECTION 34. Responsibility for Training.—The Commission shall be responsible for the coordination and integration of a continuing program of personnel development for all government personnel in the first and second levels.
Central staff agencies and specialized institutes shall conduct continuing centralized training for staff specialists from the different agencies. However, in those cases where there is sufficient number of participants to warrant training at department or agency or local government levels, such central staff agencies and specialized institutes shall render the necessary assistance, and consultative services.
To avoid duplication of effort and overlapping of training functions, the following functional responsibilities are assigned:
(1) Public and private colleges and universities and similar institutions shall be encouraged to organize and carry out continuing programs of executive development.
(2) The Commission, the Commission on Audit, the Department of Budget and Management, the General Services Administration, and other central staff agencies shall conduct centralized training and assist in the training program of the Departments or agencies along their respective functional areas of specialization.
(3) In coordination with the Commission, the Department of Local Government and Community Development shall undertake local government training programs.
(4) In coordination with the Commission, each department or agency, province or city shall establish, maintain and promote a systematic plan of action for personnel training at all levels in accordance with standards laid down by the Commission. It shall maintain appropriate training staffs and make full use of available training facilities.
Whenever it deems it necessary, the Commission shall take the initiative in undertaking programs for personnel development.
SECTION 35. Employee Suggestions and incentive Award System.—There shall be established a government-wide employee suggestions and incentive awards system which shall be administered under such rules, regulations, and standards as may be promulgated by the Commission.
In accordance with rules, regulations, and standards promulgated by the Commission, the President or the head of each department or agency is authorized to incur whatever necessary expenses involved in the honorary recognition of subordinate officers and employees of the government who by their suggestions, inventions, superior accomplishment, and other personal efforts contribute to the efficiency, economy, or other improvement of government operations, or who perform such other extraordinary acts or services in the public interest in connection with, or in relation to, their official employment.
SECTION 36. Personnel Relations.—(1) It shall be the concern of the Commission to provide leadership and assistance in developing employee relations programs in the department or agencies.
(2) Every Secretary or head of agency shall take all proper steps toward the creation of an atmosphere conducive to good supervisor-employee relations and the improvement of employee morale.
SECTION 37. Complaints and Grievances.—Employees shall have the right to present their complaints or grievances to management and have them adjudicated as expeditiously as possible in the best interest of the agency, the government as a whole, and the employee concerned. Such complaint or grievances shall be resolved at the lowest possible level in the department or agency, as the case may be, and the employee shall have the right to appeal such decision to higher authorities.
Each department or agency shall promulgate rules and regulations governing expeditious, fair and equitable adjustment of employees’ complaints or grievances in accordance with the policies enunciated by the Commission.
In case any dispute remains unresolved after exhausting all the available remedies under existing laws and procedures, the parties may jointly refer the dispute to the Public Sector Labor Management Council constituted under section 46, for appropriate action.