Commission on Elections
SECTION 1. Declaration of Policy.—The State shall at all times ensure free, orderly, honest, peaceful and credible elections under a free and open party system which shall be allowed to evolve according to the free choice of the people subject to the provisions of Article IX-C of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines.
SECTION 2. Powers and Functions.—In addition to the powers and functions conferred upon it by the constitution, the Commission shall have exclusive charge of the enforcement and administration of all laws relative to the conduct of elections for the purpose of insuring free, orderly, honest, peaceful and credible elections, and shall:
(1) Promulgate rules and regulations implementing the provisions of the Omnibus Elections Code or other laws which the Commission is required to enforce and administer;
(2) Fix other reasonable periods for certain pre-election requirements in order that voters shall not be deprived of their right of suffrage and certain groups of rights granted them in the Omnibus Election Code;
Unless indicated in the Omnibus Election Code, the Commission is hereby authorized to fix the appropriate period for the various prohibited acts enumerated therein consistent with the requirements of free, orderly, honest, peaceful and credible elections.
(3) Exercise direct and immediate supervision and control over national and local officials or employees, including members of any national or local law enforcement agency and instrumentality of the government required by law to perform duties relative to the conduct of elections, plebiscite, referendum, recall and initiative. In addition, it may authorize CMT cadets, eighteen years of age and above to act as its deputies for the purpose of enforcing its orders;
The Commission may relieve any officer or employee referred to in the preceding paragraph from the performance of his duties relating to electoral processes who violates the election law or fails to comply with its instructions, orders, decisions or rulings, and appoint his substitute. Upon recommendation of the Commission, the corresponding proper authority shall suspend or remove from office any or all of such officers or employees who may, after due process, be found guilty of such violation or failure.
(4) During the period of the campaign and ending thirty days thereafter, when in any area of the country there are persons committing acts of terrorism to influence people to vote for or against any candidate or political party, the Commission shall have the power to authorize any member or members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the National Bureau of Investigation, the Integrated National Police or any similar agency or instrumentality of the government, except civilian home defense forces, to act as deputies for the purpose of insuring the holding of free, orderly, honest, peaceful and credible elections;
(5) Publish at least ten (10) days before an election in a newspaper of general circulation certified data on the number of official ballots and election returns and the names and address of the printers and the number printed by each;
(6) Refuse, motu propio or upon a verified petition, to give due course to or cancel a certificate of candidacy if it is shown that said certificate has been filed to put the election process in mockery or disrepute or to cause confusion among the voters by the similarity of the names of the registered candidates or by other circumstances or acts which clearly demonstrate that the candidate has no bona fide intention to run for the office for which the certificate of candidacy has been filed and thus prevent a faithful determination of the true will of the electorate;
(7) Postpone, motu propio or upon verified petition and after due notice and hearing whereby all interested parties are afforded equal opportunity to be heard, the election to a date which should be reasonably close to the date of the election not held, suspended or which resulted in a failure to elect but not later than thirty days after the cessation of the cause for such postponement or suspension of the election or failure to elect, when for any serious cause such as violence, terrorism, loss or destruction of election paraphernalia or records, force majeure, and other analogous causes the holding of a free, orderly, honest, peaceful and credible election should become impossible in any political subdivision.
(8) Call for the holding or continuation of election not held in any polling place where on account of force majeure, violence, terrorism, fraud or other analogous causes the election has not been held on the date fixed, or had been suspended before the hour fixed by law for the closing of the voting, or after the voting and during the preparation and the transmission of the election returns or in the custody or canvass thereof, such election results in a failure to elect, and in any of such cases the failure or suspension of election would affect the result of the election. Such call should be on the basis of a verified petition by any interested party and after due notice and hearing, and the new date should be reasonably close to the date of the election not held, suspended or which resulted in a failure to elect but not later than thirty (30) days after the cessation of the cause of such postponement or suspension of the election or failure to elect.
(9) Call a special election to elect the member to serve the unexpired portion in case a vacancy arises in the Senate or in the House of Representatives eighteen (18) months or more before a regular election, to be held within sixty (60) days after the vacancy occurs;
(10) Summon the parties to a controversy pending before it, issue subpoena duces tecum and take testimony in any investigation or hearing before it, and delegate such power to any officer of the Commission who shall be a member of the Philippine Bar. In case of failure of a witness to attend, the Commission, upon proof of service of the subpoena to said witness, may issue a warrant to arrest the witness and bring him before the Commission or the officer before whom his attendance is required;
Any controversy submitted to the Commission shall, after compliance with the requirements of due process, be immediately heard and decided by it within sixty (60) days from the date of its submission for decision or resolution. No decision or resolution shall be rendered by the Commission either en banc or by division unless taken up in a formal session properly convened for the purpose;
The Commission may when necessary, avail itself of the assistance of any national or local law enforcement agency and or instrumentality of the government to execute under its direct and immediate supervision any of its final decisions, orders, instructions or rulings;
(11) Punish for contempt according to the procedure, and with the same penalties provided, in the Rules of Court. Any violation of any final and executory decision, order or ruling of the Commission shall constitute contempt thereof;
(12) Enforce and execute its decisions, directives, orders and instructions which shall have precedence over those emanating from any other authority, except the Supreme Court and those issued in habeas corpus proceedings;
(13) Prescribe the forms to be used in the election, plebiscite or referendum, recall or initiative;
(14) Procure any supplies, equipment, materials or services needed for the holding of the election by public bidding; but if it finds the requirements of public bidding impractical to observe, then by negotiations or sealed bids, and in both cases, the accredited parties shall be duly notified;
(15) Prescribe the use or adoption of the latest technological and electronic devices, taking into account the situation prevailing in the area and funds available for the purpose. The Commission shall notify the authorized representatives of accredited political parties and candidates in areas affected by the use or adoption of technological and electronic devices not less than thirty days prior to the effectivity of the use of such devices;
(16) Constitute a pool of standby-teachers from which substitutes shall be drawn in case a member/s of the Board of Election Inspectors who, for one reason or another, failed to report or refused to act as such on the day of election;
(17) Carry out a continuing and systematic campaign through newspapers of general circulation, radio and other media forms to educate the public and fully inform the electorate about election laws, procedures, decisions, and other matters relative to the works and duties of the Commission and the necessity of clean, free, orderly, honest, peaceful and credible electoral processes;
(18) Accredit non-partisan groups or organizations of citizens from the civic, youth, professional, education, business or labor sectors known for their probity, impartiality and integrity with the membership and capability to undertake a coordinated operation and activity to assist it in the implementation of the provisions of Omnibus Election Code and the resolutions, orders and instructions of the Commission for the purpose of ensuring free, orderly, honest, peaceful and credible elections in any constituency. Such groups or organizations shall function under the direct and immediate control and supervision of the Commission;
(19) Conduct hearing on controversies pending before it in the cities or provinces upon proper motion of any party, taking into consideration the materiality and number of witnesses to be presented, the situation prevailing in the area and the fund available for the purpose;
(20) Have exclusive jurisdiction over all pre-proclamation controversies. It may motu proprio or upon written petition, and after due notice and hearing, order the partial or total suspension of the proclamation of any candidate-elect or annul partially or totally any proclamation, if one has been made, as the evidence shall warrant. Notwithstanding the pendency of any pre-proclamation controversy, the Commission may, motu propio or upon filing of a verified petition and after due notice and hearing, order the proclamation of other winning candidates whose election will not be affected by the outcome of the controversy.
(21) Have the exclusive power, through its duly authorized legal officers, to conduct preliminary investigation of all election offenses punishable under the Omnibus Election Code and to prosecute the same. The Commission may avail itself of the assistance of other prosecuting arms of the government: Provided, however, that in the event that the Commission fails to act on any complaint within four (4) months from its filing, the complainant may file the complaint with the office of the fiscal or with the Department of Justice for proper investigation and prosecution, if warranted; and
(22) Perform such other functions as may be provided by law.
SECTION 3. Enforcement Powers.—For the effective enforcement of the provisions of the Omnibus Election Code, the Commission is further vested and charged with the following powers, duties and responsibilities:
1. To stop any illegal activity, or confiscate, tear down, and stop any unlawful, libelous, misleading or false election propaganda, after due notice and hearing; and
2. To inquire into the financial records of candidates and any organization or group of persons, motu propio or upon written representation for probable cause by any candidate, organization or group of persons or qualified voter, after due notice and hearing.
For purposes of this Section, the Commission may avail itself of the assistance of the Commission on Audit, the Central Bank, the National Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Internal Revenue, the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the Integrated National Police of the Philippines, barangay officials and other agencies of the government.