The National Academy of Science and Technology
The National Academy of Science and Technology (NAST) is the highest recognition and advisory body on science and technology. It is composed of outstanding scientists to serve as a reservoir of competent scientific and technological manpower for the country.
The 1973 Constitution stated that the advancement of science shall have priority in national development and that the “State shall promote scientific research and invention.” In order to implement this constitutional mandate, Presidential Decree (PD) No. 1003-A, s. 1976, created the National Academy of Science and Technology, the highest recognition and advisory body on science and technology.
Executive Order (EO) No. 818, s. 1982, mandated NAST to act as the advisory body of the President of the Philippines and to the Cabinet in matters concerning science and technology in the Philippines. Furthermore, the EO empowered the Academy to engage in projects or programs designed to recognize outstanding achievements in science to promote scientific productivity.
The Order of National Scientists
PD 1003-A intended to create a body to recognize outstanding achievements in science and technology as well as provide meaningful incentives to those engaged in scientific and technological research. In doing so, it also created the distinction of National Scientist, the highest honor given by the President of the Republic of the Philippines to a Filipino man or woman of science in the Philippines who has made significant contributions in one of the different fields of science and technology. National Scientists are recommended annually by NAST “for distinguished individual or collaborative achievement in science and/or technology” and are accorded rank and title by the President. According to PD 1003-A, National Scientists “shall each be given a gratuity in such amount to be fixed by the Academy and shall be entitled to other privileges as are enjoyed by the ‘National Artists’.”
In 2003, EO 236 was signed by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. It codified the system of Philippine Orders and State Decorations, and elevated the standing of the National Scientists into the Order of National Scientists, with the Order defined as such:
… an award that grants membership in an exclusive association of honored individuals, and which by tradition carries with it distinctive insignia to be worn by recipients.
Since 1978, the President of the Philippines has conferred the rank and title of National Scientist on 35 Filipinos, 14 of whom are still living.
PD 1003-A defines a scientist as an individual who has earned a doctoral degree in any field of the sciences in an accredited university, and has demonstrated and earned distinction in independent research or significant innovative achievement in the basic and applied sciences, including agricultural, engineering, medical sciences, and mathematics, as manifested by his/her published works in recognized scientific and technical journals. The decree stated however that “in highly meritorious and extremely exceptional cases the foregoing doctoral degree requirement may be waived.”
The Order of National Social Scientists
The Honors Code of 2003 also created the Order of National Social Scientists, grouped and ranked with the Order of National Scientists and the Order of National Artists as the Order of Artistic, Cultural, and Scientific Merit of the Republic. This in effect removed social scientists under the purview of the Order of National Scientists. However, guidelines and its insignia have yet to be created.
Process of naming a National Scientist
The National Scientists, 1978–2011
|Name||Year Conferred||Field of Specialization|
|1. Juan S. Salcedo, Jr., M.D. (+)||1978||Nutrition and Public Health|
|2. Alfredo C. Santos, Dr.phil. (+)||1978||Physical Chemistry|
|3. Gregorio Y. Zara, D.Sc. (+)||1978||Engineering and Inventions|
|4. Fe Del Mundo, M.D. (+)||1980||Pediatrics|
|5. Eduardo A. Quisumbing, Ph.D. (+)||1980||Plant Taxonomy, Systematics, and Morphology|
|6. Geminiano T. de Ocampo, Ph.D. (+)||1982||Ophthalmology|
|7. Casimiro V. del Rosario, Ph.D (+)||1982||Physics, Astronomy, and Meteorology|
|8. Gregorio T. Velasquez, Ph.D. (+)||1982||Phycology|
|9. Francisco M. Fronda, Ph.D. (+)||1983||Animal Husbandry|
|10. Francisco O. Santos, Ph.D. (++)||1983||Human Nutrition and Agricultural Chemistry|
|11. Carmen C. Velasquez, Ph.D. (+)||1983||Parasitology|
|12. Teodoro A. Agoncillo, Litt.D. (++)||1985||Philippine History|
|13. Encarnacion A. Alzona, Ph.D. (+)||1985||Philippine History|
|14. Hilario D. G. Lara, M.D., Dr. P.H. (+)||1985||Public Health|
|15. Julian A. Banzon, Ph.D. (+)||1986||Chemistry|
|16. Dioscoro L. Umali, Ph.D. (+)||1986||Agriculture and Rural Development|
|17. Luz Oliveros-Belardo, Ph.D. (+)||1987||Phytochemistry|
|18. Jose Encarnacion Jr., Ph.D. (+)||1987||Economics|
|19. Alfredo V. Lagmay, Ph.D. (+)||1988||Experimental Psychology|
|20. Paolo C. Campos, M.D. (+)||1989||Nuclear Medicine|
|21. Pedro B. Escuro, Ph.D. (+)||1994||Genetics and Plant Breeding|
|22. Clara Y. Lim-Sylianco, Ph.D. (+)||1994||Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry|
|23. Dolores A. Ramirez, Ph.D.||1998||Biochemical Genetics and Cytogenetics|
|24. Jose R. Velasco, Ph.D. (+)||1998||Plant Physiology|
|25. Gelia T. Castillo, Ph.D.||1999||Rural Sociology|
|26. Bienvenido O. Juliano, Ph.D.||2000||Organic Chemistry|
|27. Clare R. Baltazar, Ph.D.||2001||Systematic Entomology|
|28. Benito S. Vergara, Ph.D.||2001||Plant Physiology|
|29. Onofre D. Corpuz, Ph.D. (+)||2004||Political Economics and Government|
|30. Ricardo M. Lantican, Ph.D.||2005||Plant Breeding|
|31. Lourdes J. Cruz, Ph.D.||2006||Marine Biology|
|32. Teodulo M. Topacio||2008||Veterinary Medicine|
|33. Mercedes B. Concepcion||2010||Demography|
|34. Ernesto O. Domingo||2010||Infectious Diseases|
|35. Perla D. Santos-Ocampo (+)||2010||Pediatrics|
|36. Raul V. Fabella||2011||Economics|
|37. Bienvenido F. Nebres, S.J.||2011||Mathematics|
|38. Angel C. Alcala, Ph.D.||2014||Biological Sciences|
|39. Ramon C. Barba, Ph.D.||2014||Horticulture|
|40. Gavino C. Trono, PhD||2014||Marine Biology|
|41. Edgardo D. Gomez, PhD||2014||Marine Biology|
Legend: (+) deceased; (++) posthumous conferment.