September 15.—Secretary of War Hurley, at a Manila banquet given jointly by the American and the Philippine chambers of commerce, states: “I believe we have almost reached the point where we can consider the Philippine problem with our minds and not with our emotions. We are all keenly anxious to find a solution that is conducive to the best interests of both peoples. I assure you that I shall leave the Philippines with the desire to bring about a mutual understanding and to assure protection of all the interests involved. I have a keen interest in the welfare of the Filipino people, and I may say also that I have a profound respect for their aspirations.”
September 18.—The Board of Regents of the University of the Philippines decides to keep the School of Dentistry open until the end of the school year, reversing its former decision to close it at the end of the first semester.
September 21.—Judge Daniel R. Williams, one of the “empire builders” and considered an authority on Philippine matters, dies in Manila, aged 60.
September 22.—Judge Anacleto Diaz, special investigator of the Manila Municipal Board graft scandals, recommends the dismissal of Councillors Yuseco, Nueno, and Santos. Councillor Nable was recommended to be exonerated for lack of proof to substantiate the charges brought against him.
September 23.—The giant new turbo-electric liner, President Hoover, of the Dollar Company, arrives in Manila.
September 24.—The Legislature approves a concurrent resolution reiterating its demand for “the immediate and complete political separation of the Philippine Islands from the United States”. In the only address made on the occasion, Acting Senate President Osmeña states: “We believe our people are able to maintain a government of law and order, to give all who live on our soil due protection in the full exercise of their rights and privileges, and to comply with our international obligations”. He states that the agitation against the free importation of Philippine products into the United States has caused alarm here and that it has filled the minds of the people with doubt “to the point of asking whether they have not reached the maximum of economic development possible under the American flag.” As to the extension of more complete powers of self-government, he states: “We do not seek reforms nor changes in our government. We are not interested in new forms of autonomy. What our people desire and want now is independence; that they be allowed to live a life of their own choosing, direct their own destiny, and establish a government that is their own, loved and supported by the people, under the shadow of their own flag”.
September 26.—Secretary of War Hurley leaves Manila en route to the United States.
September 28.—Governor-General Davis announces that he will leave the Philippines for a vacation in the United States and Europe after the close of the Legislature early in November.
The Governor-General orders the dismissal of two members of the Municipal Board—José Topacio Nueno and Pascual Santos, found guilty of bribery by Judge Diaz.
October 4.—The Democrata Party convention in Manila rejects a proposal to dissolve the party by a vote of 44 to 35, not all of the 120 delegates voting. Senator Montinola was the leader of the move to dissolve the party, while Senator Recto led the fight against the plan.
October 13.—Major-General John L. Hines, commanding general of the Philippine Department, U. S. Army, leaves on the Transport Grant for Tientsin, China, to make an inspection.
October 16.—The new provincial and municipal officials are inducted into office throughout the Philippines.
THE UNITED STATES
September 19.—David Starr Jordan, noted American scientist and pacifist, dies at Palo Alto, aged 80.
September 22.—The United States Steel and the Bethlehem Steel corporations announce a ten per cent reduction in wages, this marking the first major break in the nation’s wage levels, although there has been a gradual reduction in many industries. General Motors and the Youngtown Sheet and Tube Company follow the steel interests.
September 23.—Wages of over 1,000,000 workers will be affected by the reductions announced by the leading steel, copper, automobile, and other industries. As a result, “optimism” develops on the stock market, but it is stated at the White House that the administration still adheres to its original position opposing wage reduction.
September 24.—William Green, President of the American Federation of Labor, charges the steel companies with breaking faith and with taking an unjust and unsound policy in cutting wages. He quotes Julius Klein, Assistant Secretary of Commerce, that “there will be hell to pay throughout the United States in the event of a general wage reduction”.
September 26.—Senate President Quezon leaves the United States for the Philippines, his leaving being unexpected as it was understood that he would lead the next independence campaign in America.
September 29.—The administration reduces the construction of the eleven destroyers to be added to the Navy under the London Treaty to five as an economy measure.
October 5.—Hugh Herndon and Clyde Pangborn, who took off from Sabishiro, Japan, at 7:00 a. m. (Japan time) on October 4, land near Spokane, Washington, at 7:14 a. m. (Pacific time), completing the first non-stop flight across the Pacific in about 40 hours, a distance of over 4,500 miles. They had previously circled over Seattle, but it was too foggy to land there. They were met by a representative of the Tokyo Asahi with a check for P25,000.00.
William Green, head of the American Federation of Labor, states that there will be a revolution even in the United States if industrial interests continue the present program of wage-cutting. The executive committee of the Federation charged American banking interests with forcing wage reductions through their control of credit.
Senator Dwight W. Morrow, former Ambassador to Mexico, and insistently mentioned as a candidate for President at the next elections, dies of cerebral hemorrhage, aged 58.
October 6.—The American Federation of Labor convention adopts resolutions demanding the exclusion of Filipino laborers, the regulation of immigration from Mexico, the repeal of the 18th Amendment and the Volstead Act, and the calling of a special session of Congress to appropriate money for unemployment relief.
At a conference of congressional leaders at the White House, President Hoover outlines a “gigantic economic recovery program”, the main feature of which is the liberalizing of the Federal Reserve advances. He suggests the organization by the bankers of a national institution to rediscount frozen assets which provide one of the big problems of the current depression. If necessary, the government would form a finance corporation similar to the War Finance Corporation. The President states that the administration is also studying intergovernmental debt and reparation problems and will discuss a further extension of the present moratorium with Premier Pierre Laval when he arrives on his planned visit to Washington.
October 7.—The American Bankers Association votes approval of President Hoover’s plan for a $500,000,000 bankers’ pool to mobilize the nation’s frozen assets.
October 8.—It is understood that drastic European disarmament is the price for which the United States is holding further relief from war debts owed by Europe, and this understanding will be sought by President Hoover in his conference with Premier Laval.
September 15.—Mahatma Gandhi at London demands complete self-government for India, but states that India is willing to remain in “partnership” with the British empire, provided that this may be terminated at any time at the desire of either party. “If God wills, it will be a permanent partnership, but at the same time the right to terminate the association will constitute the real test of the equality of position enjoyed by both partners”. Gandhi explained that he was invested with discretion to make adjustments and concessions, but that these must be consistent with the fundamentals of Indian independence. According to the program given Gandhi by the Nationalists, India asks for state ownership of key industries, natural resources, and transportation facilities, real economic freedom for the masses, universal adult suffrage, right of every citizen to bear arms, free primary education, military organization of citizens for national defense apart from the regular military forces, protection of native cloth and other industries, prohibition of alcohol and other narcotics, adjustment of all debts incurred by the British during the past 150 years, state control of usury, freedom of duty in salt manufacture in India, and a reduction of all salaries to a maximum of 500 rupies.
The British Admiralty orders the Atlantic fleet to remain in port and cancels maneuvers because of unrest among the tailors whose pay, along with that of soldiers, policemen, teachers, and other civil servants, from the premier down, has been cut. The pay of ordinary seamen was cut from 68 to 50 cents a day. A demonstration of some 700 men on shore leave at Invergordon, Scotland, reached almost riot proportions.
September 16.—The British sailors obtain a promise from the British Admiralty that there would be a reexamination of the new rates of pay with a view to alleviating any hardships disclosed.
September 17.—Austen Chamberlain issues a notice to the participants in the Navy’s passive mutiny that they will be dealt with under the Navy Discipline Act unless they forthwith return to duty. He tells the House of Commons later that the Admiralty would not prosecute those who have protested against the wage cuts provided discipline is restored.
The Board of Governors of the Bank of England pays an “unprecedented visit” on Prime Minister MacDonald and informs him that the exchange situation is precarious and predicts an alarming fall in the pound sterling unless the government announces there will be no general election as it is feared that this might lead to radical elements seizing control.
September 21.—The London stock exchange is closed to prevent a panic. The pound sterling breaks sharply in New York.
September 22.—The British government suspends the gold standard for a period of six months, which means that it will not exchange its currency for gold or send any more gold out of the country during that period of time.
September 27.—Norway and Sweden follow the example of Britain and place an embargo on gold exportation.
September 28.—France and Germany create a Franco-German economic commission to device means of cooperation. Both countries have agreed to pool their efforts to overcome the present economic troubles through a commission to include government representatives and business and labor leaders. Premier Laval and Foreign Minister Briand are now in Berlin on a goodwill visit.
October 2.—Rioting of major proportions breaks out in Glascow, Scotland, in protest against the proposed cut in the dole. Police struggle with a mob of 40,000, unable to preserve order. Many stores are looted and numerous persons hurt.
October 3.—Sir Thomas Lipton, yachtsman and tea merchant, dies, aged 81.
October 6.—Premier MacDonald announces that parliament will be dissolved tomorrow and a general election held on October 27, the first since May 30, 1929, when the Labor Party swept Baldwin’s conservative government out of power.
October 7.—The German cabinet resigns and a dictatorial régime is established, all basic constitutional rights being suspended. Chancellor Bruening has been commissioned to form a new government.
October 13.—The Spanish Constitutional Assembly rejects Catholicism as the state religion by a vote of 267 to 41.
October 14.—Niceto Alcala Zamora, President of Spain, resigns in protest against the anti-Catholic legislation adopted by the Assembly, and Manuel Azaña is elected in his place.
THE MANCHURIAN SITUATION
September 19.—After the alleged cutting of the South Manchurian Railway tracks near Mukden, Japanese troops advance on Mukden and take the city.
The Japanese Cabinet lets it be known that the Japanese reinforcements rushed to Mukden will be withdrawn as soon as the situation is normal.
September 20.—Japanese troops are in complete occupation of all strategic points in Manchuria from Changchun to the Kwantung border after a series of rapid military movements. Severe fighting occurred at several points.
The Chinese Foreign Office lodges a strong protest with the Japanese Government. China is apparently not fully decided what course to pursue, and the Japanese being in complete control of communications, the Foreign Office is without full advices.
September 21.—Tens of thousands of Chinese are fleeing southward as the Japanese seize control of affairs in Manchuria. Chang Hsueh-liang, Manchurian over-lord, still convalescing at Peipin, states that Japan’s action “constitutes an unwarranted and unprecedented act of war.” Chiang Kai-shek, President of China, returns to Nanking and calls an emergency meeting of government leaders.
The Washington State Department still holds to its announced position that the situation in Manchuria, so far as disclosed, fails for the present to warrant invoking the Kellogg-Briand anti-war pact.
China appeals to the League of Nations under Article XI of the Covenant.
Prominent Shanghai Chinese send a protest to America calling the Japanese action a wanton invasion and a repetition of what Japan did in 1915 when it presented its famous “Twenty-one Demands” upon China.
September 22.—The insurgent Cantonese government issues a proclamation stating that peace will be made with Nanking in order that a united China may “deal with Japan”.
After the Japanese representative at the League of Nations promised that Japan would abide by the Covenant, Japan and China were called upon to “withdraw their troops from the disputed area”. Spokesmen for the two nations were summoned by the Council committee for the purpose of finding the best measures for withdrawing the troops without compromising the security of life and property.
It is reported that there is a difference of opinion between the Tokyo War and Foreign offices in regard to the Manchurian situation, Foreign Minister Shidehara and Premier Wakatsuki himself having consistently stood for a policy of “friendship and patience” with the Chinese. Japanese troops now also occupy the province of Kirin and more troops are landing near Tientsin
Lord Cecil proposes to the Council of the League of Nations that the League “solemnly summon both China and Japan to withdraw their troops each from the territory of the other”.
September 23.—A Japanese Foreign Office spokesman states that the movements of Japanese troops outside the zone of the South Manchurian Railway will end and that withdrawals of troops are now under way.
According to a United Press correspondent, Japan it “apparently determined to exclude all intervention whether by Russia, the League of Nations, or the signatories to the Kellogg pact.”
Washington makes public a note to the League of Nations expressing sympathy with the Council viewpoint and stating that the United States was communicating with China and Japan accordingly.
September 24.—The United States dispatches notes to China and Japan expressing the hope that they “can dispose of their problem in Manchuria peacefully and in accordance with international law and peace agreements. The note was delayed until today apparently to avoid the appearance of interference and to give both nations time to adjust matters.
K. Yoshizawa, Japanese representative at the League of Nations, withstands every effort of the League to break the deadlock over procedure in the Manchurian situation, and refuses to budge from his original position that the League should not interfere with Japan’s actions in China. As a result, the League postpones action and China’s appeal, pending developments.
September 25.—Japanese troops are reported to be taking more territory in Manchuria and have taken control of the Northeastern Radio Station, thus completing their control of all telegraphic communications.
The League of Nations rejects China’s appeal for an examination of the Manchurian situation by an impartial commission after the receipt of an official note from Japan that the Japanese forces in Manchuria are being withdrawn to the fullest extent permitted by the safety requirements of Japanese residents and their property.
September 27.—Anti-Japanese riots in Hongkong result in the killing of six Japanese and three Chinese, and troops have to be called out to quiet the situation.
Japan assures the League that it will withdraw troops within the railway zone by the end of the week and also replies to the United States, saying that it has refrained from further hostilities in Manchuria “in common with the hope of the American government”.
September 28.—C. T. Wang, Chinese foreign minister, is seriously injured by a mob of students because of his alleged failure to induce the League of Nations to intervene in Manchuria.
September 30.—The League of Nations adjourns without taking action in the Manchurian affair. It will reassemble on October 14. Japan has steadily refused to accept outside interference.
The resignation of Foreign Minister C. T. Wang is accepted. His resignation is believed to be due to the severe injuries he received a few days ago.
October 1.—Reported that the three provinces of Manchuria have formed independent governments. Chang Hsueh-liang and Nanking officials state that these governments have been organized under Japanese direction.
October 2.—Japanese airplanes bomb and destroy Chinese barracks at Paishanchengtse on the Mukden-Hailung railway. Japanese and Chinese dispatches agree that the Japanese military is not relaxing its grip on the occupied zone. The Japanese state that their latest movements are protective and necessitated by widespread lawlessness. The Chinese claim that this is due to the Japanese destroying the former organization for the maintenance of order.
October 5.—The Chinese legation at Washington issues the statement that the Japanese are inciting Manchurian secession, and charging the Japanese with using pretentions of maintaining order as a blind for other motives.
October 6.—Japan sends “several hundred” more troops to its Shanghai garrison and it is also announced that four cruisers, twenty-four destroyers, and one airplane carrier are in readiness to leave for China at any moment. Additional warships are sent to Shanghai “to protect Japanese nationals”.
October 8.—Japanese airplanes drop bombs on Chinchow where the Manchurian government is temporarily housed.
October 9.—The Japanese government issues a note warning the Nanking government that it will be held responsible for failure to suppress the present boycott movement and other manifestations of anti-Japanese feeling.
An urgent session of the League of Nations has been summoned to meet on the 13th instead of the 14th of the months to consider the Sino-Japanese situation.
The American State Department sends a note to the League urging it “to assert all of the pressure and authority within its competence” toward settling the Manchurian trouble. The note assures the League that the United States will coöperate with the League in its efforts to restore peace.
October 10.—The Japanese Ambassador at Washington assures Secretary of State Stimson that the bombing of the temporary headquarters of Chang Hsueh-liang, Manchurian commander, was “an isolated military incident, unfortunate in consequences, and not approved by the Japanese government”.
October 12.—The soft-spoken but forceful attitude of the American government is creating a stir in Tokyo and it is reiterated that the Manchurian affair is purely local and must be settled between Japan and China.
October 13.—An offer by Japan to immediately begin direct negotiations with China for a settlement of the Manchurian dispute, is met by a refusal of China to negotiate except through the League of Nations. Aristide Briand, who is presiding over the special session, declares: “A terrible responsibility is developing for the nations whose actions may cause a catastrophe, the effects of which would be world-wide.”
October 14.—The American government appoints Prentis Gilbert, consul general at Geneva, to represent the United States should it be invited by the League to take part in the deliberations.
The League Council decides to invite the United States to join in seeking a settlement of the Sino-Japanese controversy, but encounters opposition from the Japanese.
October 15.—Following the Army’s objection, the Japanese government instructs its representative at Geneva to oppose the proposal that an American observer sit in the League Council when Sino-Japanese differences are considered.
Source: University of Michigan
Hartendorp, A. V. H. (Ed.). (1931). News Summary. Philippine Magazine, 28(6), 254-257. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/acd5869.0038.001.umich.edu#page/n5/mode/2up.