ABOUT THE TIMELINE MAP PROJECT
On September 23, 2015, we remember the 43rd anniversary of the Declaration of Martial Law on September 23. The Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office (PCDSPO) has put together a timeline leading up to Martial Law, up to the downfall of the Marcos dictatorship, taken from the point of view of the people who lived through the events that have unfolded. The timeline relies on two types of sources: (1) first-hand accounts, diaries, and memoirs; and (2) biographies, news articles, peer-reviewed journals and academic books.
This timeline also draws from President Ferdinand E. Marcos’ diaries, as featured in the Philippine Diary Project. For contemporary accounts, we relied on the articles of the Philippines Free Press, and on books (enumerated in the bibliography).
In 2012, to remember the 40th anniversary, the PCDSPO live-tweeted the events that led to martial law, in sequence and timed to match the pivotal events four decades past. That session of live tweeting—and the research that went into it—has expanded into an effort to publish an online timeline that will include more detailed accounts. This has since evolved into the collection of multimedia you can access below.
We invite everyone to discuss and interpret Martial Law, based on the meticulous scrutiny of recent scholarship.
Abaya, Hernando J., The Making of a Subversive – a Memoir. Quezon City: H.J. Abaya and New Day Publishers, 1984.
Almonte, Jose T., and Marites Dañguilan Vitug. Endless Journey: A Memoir. Quezon City: Cleverheads Publishing, 2015.
Aquino, Benigno S., A Garrison State in the Make and Other Speeches. Makati: Benigno S. Aquino, Jr. Foundation, 1985.
–. “Constitutional Convention or Malacanang Kennel”, Philippine Free Press Online. January 22, 1972. Accessed on September 16, 2015, link.
Bonner, Raymond, Waltzing with the Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy. New York: Times Books, 1987.
Celoza, Albert F., Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 1997.
de Quiros, Conrado, Dead Aim: How Marcos Ambushed Philippine Democracy. Pasig City: Foundation for Worldwide People Power, Inc., 1997.
del Mundo, Fernando, “Marcos diaries: ‘Hysteria in Manila … I must declare martial law soon’”. Philippine Daily Inquirer Online. Accessed on September 14, 2015, link.
Diaz- Laurel, Celia, Doy Laurel. Makati: GA Printing, 2005.
Doronila, Amando, The State, Economic Transformation, and Political Change in the Philippines, 1946-1972. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Enrile, Juan Ponce, Juan Ponce Enrile: A Memoir. Quezon City, ABS-CBN Publishing Inc., 2012.
Foreign Correspondents Association of the Philippines, Dateline Manila. Pasig: Anvil Publishing, Inc., 2007.
Gleeck, Lewis Jr., President Marcos and the Philippine Political Culture. Manila: Loyal Printing, Inc, 1987.
G.R. No. L-35149, June 23, 1988, Eduardo Quintero vs. The National Bureau of Investigation.
Hedman, Eva- Lotta E. and John T. Sidel, Philippine Politics and Society in the Twentieth Century: Colonial Legacies, Post- Colonial Trajectories. London: Routledge, 2005.
Joaquin, Nick, Doy Laurel in Profile: A Philippine Political Odyssey. Makati: Lahi, 1985.
Kalaw, Eva Estrada, A Political Journey. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing, Inc., 2008.
Kuinisala, Edward R., “Malacañang versus Meralco”, The Philippine Free Press Online, January 30, 1971, accessed on September 16, 2015, link.
Kuinisala, Edward R., “The Outrage, September 4, 1971”, The Philippine Free Press Online, January 30, 1971, accessed on September 16, 2015, link.
Kuinisala, Edward R., “The Politicalization of the Constitutional Convention”, The Philippine Free Press, January 22, 1972, accessed on September 16, 2015, link.
The Lawphil Project, “Eduardo Quintero, petitioner vs. The National Bureau of Investigation”, accessed on September 18, 2015, link.
Locsin Jr., Teodoro L., “The Choice,” Philippine Free Press Online, August 28, 1971, accessed on September 16, 2015, link.
Martinez, Manuel, The Grand Collision: Aquino vs. Marcos. Quezon City: M. F. Martinez, 1987.
Mijares, Primitivo, The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos I. New York: Union Square Publications, 1986.
The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “President’s Week in Review: January 12 – January 18, 1973”, accessed on September 18, 2015, link.
The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “Proclamation No. 1081, s. 1972”. Accessed on September 17, 2015, link.
The Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, “Letter of Instruction No. 1”. Accessed on September 18, 2015, link.
The Philippine Diary Project, “Augusto Caesar Espiritu”. Accessed on September 14, 2015, link.
The Philippine Diary Project, “January 28, 1970”. Accessed on September 14, 2015, link.
The Philippine Diary Project, “January 30, 1970, Friday”. Accessed on September 14, 2015, link.
The Philippine Diary Project, “Saturday, January 31, 1970”. Accessed on September 14, 2015, link.
The Philippine Diary Project, “Sept. 23, 1972, Saturday, 12:20 pm”. Accessed on September 14, 2015, link.
Presidential Communication Development and Strategic Planning Office. Philippine Electoral Almanac. Manila: PCDSPO, 2013.
Presidential Museum and Library, “Jose Mari Velez on Ninoy Aquino.” Accessed on September 18, 2015, http://malacanang.gov.ph/4542-jose-mari-velez-on-ninoy-aquino/.
Presidential Museum and Library, “Teodoro Locsin Sr. on Ninoy Aquino.” Accessed on September 18, 1972, http://malacanang.gov.ph/4574-teodoro-locsin-sr-on-ninoy-aquino/.
Quezon, Manuel III et al., Assembly of the nation: a centennial history of the House of Representatives of the Philippines, 1907-2007. Quezon City: House of the Representatives of the Philippines, 2007.
Quezon, Manuel III, “The Explainer: The nuts and bolts of martial law,” Manuel L. Quezon III. Accessed on September 14, 2015, link.
Rempel, William C., Delusions of a Dictator: The Mind of Marcos As Revealed in His Secret Diaries.Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co., 1993.
Rodrigo, Raul, The Power and the Glory: the Story of the Manila Chronicle 1945-1998. Quezon City: Eugenio Lopez Foundation, 2007.
Rodrigo, Raul, Phoenix: The Saga of the Lopez Family Volume 1: 1800 – 1972. Manila: Eugenio Lopez Foundation, Inc., 2000.
Salonga, Jovito, A Journey of Struggle and Hope: The Memoir of Jovito R. Salonga. Quezon City: U.P. Center for Leadership, Citizenship and Democracy, 2001.
Santos, Vergel O., Chino and His Time. Pasig: Anvil, 2010.
Schirmer, Daniel B. and Stephen Rosskamm Shalom, The Philippines Reader: A History of Colonialism, Neocolonialism, Dictatorship, and Resistance. New York: South End Press, 1987.
Sycip, Cynthia, Memories of a Hero: A Collection of incidents in the Life of Ninoy Aquino. Manila, 1986. Accessed on September 11, 2015, link.
Tolentino, Arturo M., Voice of Dissent. Quezon City: Phoenix Press, Inc., 1990.
Tutay, Filemon V., “Who Me?”, Philippine Free Press Online, February 5, 1972, accessed on September 17, 2015, link.
Wurfel, David, Filipino Politics: Development and Decay. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila Press, 1991.